Cloud Computing Security

With more and more businesses turning to the cloud to store their data, cloud security is becoming increasingly important. With the numerous benefits of cloud computing comes the need for organisations to ensure that their systems are secure from potential threats. Cloud security involves a range of processes, tools and controls that help organisations protect their data while still allowing them access to its useful features.

Characteristics of passwords

Creating strong, secure passwords is essential to protect your data and personal information in today’s digital world.

It is important to create passwords that are at least 8 characters long, contain a combination of alphanumeric characters (upper and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols), and should never include personal information. It is also essential to update your passwords regularly and use different passwords for each service or account. Last but not least, it is strongly recommended that you use two-factor authentication whenever possible to protect your sensitive data further.

Configuration and management of passwords

Passwords should be managed and configured securely to protect sensitive data.

Multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is an authentication method that adds a layer of security to the traditional user name and password system. MFA requires additional verification to ensure that users are who they claim to be. There are two main categories of MFA: possession-based, which requires users to present an additional device such as a security token or smartphone, and knowledge-based, which requires users to provide further information, such as answers to secret questions or personal data points. Both types of MFA provide an extra layer of protection that can help prevent unauthorised access and protect sensitive data.


Multi-factor authentication (MFA) can also include biometric authentication, which relies on user-specific identifying characteristics. This includes options such as fingerprint scanners, face recognition technology and voice recognition software, all of which are becoming increasingly more accessible for both consumers and businesses. Biometric authentication is a secure way to verify user identity since each person’s unique physiological characteristics are hard to replicate or fake. Biometric authentication systems have been proven effective in preventing unauthorised access, making them an essential part of any security system.


Knowledge-based authentication is another type of MFA that requires users to provide additional information to verify their identity. This can include a password, a personal identification number (PIN), or answers to previously set personal questions. Knowledge-based authentication provides an easy and secure way for users to identify themselves and helps protect sensitive data from unauthorised access. Additionally, it is a cost-effective solution since there are no additional hardware costs associated with implementation.

Automated password resets

Automated password resets are a system that enables users to reset their passwords without having to contact tech support. This process can be initiated with a few clicks, and, in many cases, password reset links can be sent directly to the user’s email address or mobile device.

Automated password resets are a beneficial security measure for businesses and users alike. They offer a more convenient and time-saving solution than manual password resets, enabling users to reset their passwords with just a few clicks. Automated password resets can also be carried out 24/7, providing uninterrupted customer service. Additionally, automated password resets provide valuable data that can help identify trends and trigger training opportunities while detecting unsuccessful attempts, which could indicate hacking or other security threats.

Password policy and policy enforcement

Password policy and policy enforcement are important elements of data security to protect user accounts from unauthorised access. A password policy outlines the rules and guidelines for creating strong passwords, such as a minimum length, maximum age, and use of special characters or numbers. Policy enforcement is the process of ensuring that users follow these guidelines when setting their passwords. By enforcing these policies, businesses can help reduce the risk of system breaches due to weak passwords.

Password history policy

A Password History Policy is a set of rules for how long and how many passwords a user must retain. This policy can help to protect against account compromise as it prevents users from reusing their passwords too often. Additionally, it prevents users from using similar passwords that hackers could easily guess or crack. A good password history policy should require users to save at least three different passwords over a certain period, such as every 3 months. This will ensure that the others remain secure even if one password is exposed.

Minimum password age policy

A Minimum Password Age Policy is a rule that limits how often users can change their passwords. This policy is important because it prevents users from creating weak passwords and quickly changing them, which hackers could easily guess. A good minimum password age policy should require users to keep the same password for at least 30 days before being able to change it. This will ensure that even if a user’s password is exposed, hackers cannot gain access until after the 30-day period has passed.

Maximum password age policy

A Maximum Password Age Policy is a rule that limits how long users can keep the same password before changing it. This policy is important because if passwords are kept for too long, they could become easy to guess or crack by hackers. A good maximum password age policy should require users to change their passwords every 90 days or even more often if needed. This will ensure that even if one password is exposed, the others remain secure and cannot be used for the next 90 days.

Complexity requirements policy

A Complexity Requirements Policy is a rule that specifies the length and complexity of passwords used by users. This policy is important because it helps to ensure that user passwords are secure and hard to guess or crack by hackers. A good password complexity requirements policy should require passwords to be at least 8-10 characters in length, with a combination of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters such as #[email protected]$%^&*(). This will help ensure that even if one user’s password is exposed, the others remain secure.

Management of users and groups in cloud services

Cloud services allow organisations to manage users and groups with ease. By creating user roles, administrators can quickly manage access levels for different users. Groups can be created to allow only a certain set of users to access specific resources or applications. Administrators can also assign permissions to those groups, allowing them to view, edit, and delete data within the cloud service. In addition, multi-factor authentication can be used for added security, requiring additional verification before allowing a user access to sensitive data or applications. This helps ensure that only legitimate users have access and keeps malicious actors out.

Security groups

Creating security groups is an essential part of any cloud security setup. Security groups allow administrators to control which users can access specific applications and resources within the cloud. These groups can be created with custom rules that specify the IP addresses, protocols, ports, and other settings that must be in place for a user to access the desired application or resource. By creating appropriate security groups, administrators can ensure that only authorised users can access sensitive systems and data.

Configure security groups

Administrators must ensure the rules are correctly set up for the desired application or resource when configuring security groups. Various settings such as IP addresses, protocols, ports, and other options can be configured to ensure that only authorised users can access the system. Additionally, multi-factor authentication and other security measures, such as data encryption in transit, should be considered to enhance security further. Finally, administrators should regularly review security group settings to ensure all users have the appropriate access levels and that no unauthorised changes have been made.

Cloud connectivity

Securing cloud connectivity is essential for keeping data and systems safe. Administrators should deploy strong firewalls, utilise encryption for data in transit, and implement robust authentication protocols to ensure that only authorised users can access the system. They should also regularly review their security policies and settings to make sure everything is up-to-date. Additionally, organisations should monitor their networks and applications to detect suspicious activity or threats. Finally, it is important to have a secure backup plan in case of a breach or other unexpected event.

Invite/edit/remove users

Inviting, editing, and removing users from cloud-based systems is critical to maintaining secure connectivity. Administrators should always have full control over who has access to the system, ensuring that only those with the proper credentials are given access. To invite new users, administrators should require that they submit a verified form of identification and complete any other necessary verification steps. Administrators should ensure that the user’s information and access privileges are up-to-date and correct when editing user accounts. Finally, to remove users from the system, administrators should disable their access and delete their accounts to prevent them from accessing confidential data or systems.

Manage application access

Managing application access to cloud-based systems is important in ensuring secure connectivity. Administrators should use role-based access control that defines which users have access to what applications and data. Administrators should also regularly review the permissions associated with each user account to ensure that no one has too much or too little access. Additionally, administrators should monitor for any suspicious activity, such as unauthorised downloads or attempts to bypass security protocols. Finally, administrators should keep all software updated and patched to prevent attackers from exploiting vulnerabilities in outdated versions.

Check login statistics

Checking login statistics is an important part of monitoring user activity. Administrators should review logins to identify anomalies, such as unusual numbers of failed attempts or suspicious activity from a particular IP address. Additionally, administrators should set up alerts for when certain thresholds are reached to provide an early warning system for potential issues. Finally, administrators should check each user’s authentication status to ensure that they are using two-factor authentication, as this will help protect against attacks.

Managing cloud identities

Managing cloud identities is essential for ensuring secure and reliable access to your cloud-based services. Administrators should create individual user accounts with unique credentials and provide each user with the appropriate level of access based on their role.

Identity provisioning (on-boarding and off-boarding)

Identity provisioning is essential for granting access to cloud-based services and maintaining the security of your system. Administrators should set up automated systems to create unique accounts with appropriate access levels for each user to ensure a secure onboarding process. Additionally, administrators should require two-factor authentication to protect users against account takeover attacks. For off-boarding, administrators should immediately remove a user’s access when they leave the company and regularly review existing users’ permissions to ensure no one has excessive privileges.

Identity management (across multiple organisations, services, devices)

Identity management across multiple organisations, services and devices can be challenging, but it is essential for ensuring secure access and protecting against internal and external threats. Administrators should set up a centralised system to manage identities and credentials across all of their organisational entities and establish processes for managing users’ accounts as they move between different services.

Types of security threats to cloud services and their characteristics

Cloud services face various security threats, including malware, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, data leakage and account takeover attempts. Malware is malicious code that can spread through networks to steal data or cause system disruption.

Insider threats (malicious and accidental)

Insider threats from malicious or accidental sources can be particularly difficult to manage. Malicious insiders may attempt to steal data or disrupt operations, whether for financial gain or other reasons. Accidental insider threats may occur when employees unintentionally expose company data through careless actions, such as sending confidential information via email without encrypting it properly. To protect against these threats, organisations should implement access control policies, monitor employee activity regularly and train staff on security best practices. Additionally, organisations should have a response plan in place in the event of an incident.

Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks

Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks are a type of cyber attack that aims to disrupt the normal functioning of a computer or network by overwhelming it with traffic or requests. There are several types of DoS attacks, including:

  1. SYN flood: A SYN flood attack is a DoS attack that exploits a weakness in the TCP connection establishment process. In a TCP connection, the client sends an SYN (synchronise) message to the server to initiate the connection, and the server responds with an SYN-ACK (acknowledge) message. The client then sends an ACK (acknowledge) message to complete the connection. In an SYN flood attack, the attacker sends many SYN messages to the server but never responds to the SYN-ACK messages. This consumes resources on the server, preventing it from being able to establish new connections with legitimate clients.
  2. HTTP flood: An HTTP flood attack is a type of DoS attack that involves sending a large number of HTTP requests to a web server to overwhelm it and prevent it from responding to legitimate requests. The attacker can use automated tools to send the requests or a distributed network of compromised computers to amplify the attack.
  3. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack: A DDoS attack involves multiple computers or devices, often called a botnet, working together to flood a target with traffic or requests. DDoS attacks are particularly effective because they can generate a large amount of traffic from multiple sources, making it difficult for the target to distinguish legitimate traffic from attack traffic.

Individuals and organisations must protect against DoS attacks by implementing security measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and load balancers. These measures can help mitigate the effects of an attack and allow the target to continue functioning normally.

Insecure application programming interfaces (APIs)

An application programming interface (API) is a set of protocols, routines, and tools for building software and applications. APIs allow different software systems to communicate with each other and exchange data and functionality. However, if an API is not designed or implemented securely, it can create vulnerabilities that attackers can exploit.

Here are a few ways that insecure APIs can pose a risk:

  1. Lack of authentication: If an API does not require authentication, anyone can access it and potentially manipulate or steal data.
  2. Lack of authorisation: Even if an API requires authentication, if it does not properly enforce authorisation, an authenticated user may be able to access data or functionality they should not have access.
  3. Lack of input validation: If an API does not validate input data, an attacker may be able to send malicious data that could cause the API to crash or behave unexpectedly.
  4. Lack of output encoding: If an API does not properly encode its output, an attacker may be able to inject malicious code into the output, potentially allowing them to take control of the user’s device.

To secure APIs, it is important to implement strong authentication and authorisation measures, validate input data, and encode output properly. Regularly testing and monitoring APIs for vulnerabilities is also a good idea.


Malware is a type of software that is designed to harm or exploit a computer or device. There are many different types of malware, including:

Spyware: Spyware is a type of malware designed to gather information about a user without their knowledge. It can track a user’s online activity, log keystrokes, or capture screenshots.




Worms: A worm is malware designed to replicate itself and spread to other devices. It can propagate through networks or through email attachments.




Trojans: A Trojan is a type of malware disguised as legitimate software. When a user installs the software, the Trojan is also installed and can perform malicious actions, such as stealing data or giving an attacker remote access to the device.



Viruses: A virus is a malware designed to replicate itself and spread to other devices. It can propagate through networks, email attachments, or by being embedded in legitimate software.




Adware: Adware is malware that displays unwanted advertisements on a user’s device. It can be bundled with other software and can be difficult to remove.




Ransomware: Ransomware is malware that encrypts a user’s data and demands a ransom in exchange for the decryption key. It can be spread through email attachments or through compromised websites.




Malware can be difficult to detect and remove, and it can cause serious damage to a device or network. To protect against malware, it is important to use antivirus software, keep software and security patches up to date, and be cautious when downloading and installing software or opening email attachments.

Mitigating security threats

Different methods can be used to mitigate security threats. For instance, authentication measures such as two-factor authentication and biometric authentication can help ensure only authorised users are allowed access. Encryption is another measure that helps protect data from being accessed or modified without permission. Firewalls can also be deployed to block certain types of traffic and control network access. Intrusion detection systems can identify malicious activity, while anti-virus software can detect and remove malicious code from a system. Finally, organisations should stay up to date on the latest security patches to protect against known vulnerabilities.

Computer usage policies

A clear, detailed computer usage policy is essential to ensure devices’ safe and secure use. A computer usage policy should outline how users are expected to behave when using company machines and what actions will be taken if these rules are not followed. The policy should include information about acceptable internet use, email etiquette, acceptable software usage, and other relevant topics. Additionally, the policy should also provide instructions for reporting lost or stolen equipment and information about data privacy measures. Ultimately, having a comprehensive computer usage policy helps to ensure the security of all devices within an organisation.


A firewall is a security system that monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. It can be configured to block certain types of traffic, such as traffic from known malicious IP addresses or traffic that is suspected of being malicious.

Intrusion detection and prevention systems

An intrusion detection and prevention system (IDPS) is a security system that monitors network traffic for signs of a potential intrusion or attack. If an IDPS detects suspicious activity, it can alert security personnel or take automatic actions to prevent the attack, such as blocking traffic from the source.


Encryption is the process of converting data into a coded form that someone with the proper decryption key can only access. Encrypting data can help to protect it from unauthorised access or tampering.

Access controls

Access controls are security measures used to regulate who has access to a system or resource. This can include measures such as authentication, authorisation, and least privilege, ensuring that users only have access to the resources and permissions needed to do their jobs.

Patch management

Patch management is the process of identifying, testing, and applying software updates or patches to fix vulnerabilities or improve security. Keeping software and systems up to date with the latest patches can help to prevent attacks that exploit known vulnerabilities.

Staff training

Staff training can help to educate employees about potential security threats and how to recognise and avoid them. This can include training on topics such as phishing attacks, password management, and online safety.

Access rights/permissions

Access rights, also known as permissions, are a user’s specific actions within a system or resource. Properly configured access rights can help to prevent unauthorised access or manipulation of sensitive data.

Regular password resetting

Regular password resetting can help to prevent unauthorised access to accounts. If a user’s password is compromised, resetting it can help to prevent an attacker from gaining access to the account.

Malware software/malware checking

Malware software, also known as antivirus software, can help to detect and remove malware from a device. Regularly running malware checks can help identify and remove any malware the antivirus software may have missed.

Certification of APIs

Certifying APIs involves evaluating them for security vulnerabilities and ensuring that they meet industry standards. This can help to ensure that APIs are secure and can be trusted by users.

Collaboration of user knowledge/experience

Collaborating with users to share knowledge and experience can help to identify and address potential security threats. This can include soliciting feedback from users about potential vulnerabilities or seeking out experts in the field to provide guidance.

Using white/grey hat hackers

White hat hackers, also known as ethical hackers, are security experts who use their skills to test and improve the security of systems. Grey hat hackers may operate outside of the law but do not have malicious intent. Using these types of hackers can help to identify and fix vulnerabilities before malicious actors exploit them.

SYN cookies

SYN cookies are a security measure used to protect against SYN flood attacks. They are generated by a server and sent to a client in response to a SYN message. The server can connect with the client if the client responds with the correct cookie. If the client does not have the correct cookie, the connection is not established, helping to prevent the attack.

Collection of reverse proxies

A reverse proxy is a server that sits between a client and a server, forwarding requests and responses between them. Using a collection of reverse proxies can help distribute incoming traffic load and improve a system’s overall performance and security.

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